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Maumau 'Oppressive violence' VideoMau Mau Uprising 1952-60 - Anti-British Rebellion in Kenya
In current English, mau-mau is used to suggest that a person's efforts and actions stem only from a desire to commit violent acts, or in milder use, to cause disruption or achieve some petty aim.
When the term is used of a black person it is especially likely to be considered offensive. Sign Up Dictionary Entries near mau-mau maulstick maulvi mauma mau-mau Maumee maumet maumetry.
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Test Your Vocabulary Musical Words Quiz Which word describes a musical performance marked by the absence of instrumental accompaniment?
In addition to search-and-destroy missions against Mau Mau fighter bands operating in the forests, the British also strategically resettled Kikuyu in villages.
They also detained some , Kikuyu without trial, often for periods of between three and seven years. One has died since the case was lodged.
The firm says its clients suffered terribly in detention camps or at the hands of British-led soldiers. Solicitor Martyn Day told the BBC: "They were put in camps where they were subject to severe torture, malnutrition, beatings.
The women were sexually assaulted. Two of the men were castrated. The most severe gruesome torture you could imagine. It wasn't just isolated individual officers.
The whole purpose was to break the Mau Mau. The UK says the claim is not valid because of the amount of time since the abuses were alleged to have happened, and that any liability rested with the Kenyan authorities after independence in The camp commandant outlined a plan that would force 88 of the detainees to bend to work.
On 3 March , the camp commandant put this plan into action — as a result, 11 detainees were clubbed to death by guards. Mau Mau militants were guilty of numerous war crimes.
The most notorious was their attack on the settlement of Lari , on the night of 25—26 March , in which they herded men, women and children into huts and set fire to them, hacking down with machetes anyone who attempted escape, before throwing them back into the burning huts.
If I see one now I shall shoot with the greatest eagerness ' ",  and it "even shocked many Mau Mau supporters, some of whom would subsequently try to excuse the attack as 'a mistake ' ".
A retaliatory massacre was immediately perpetrated by Kenyan security forces who were partially overseen by British commanders.
Official estimates place the death toll from the first Lari massacre at 74, and the second at , though neither of these figures account for those who 'disappeared'.
Whatever the actual number of victims, "[t]he grim truth was that, for every person who died in Lari's first massacre, at least two more were killed in retaliation in the second.
Aside from the Lari massacres, Kikuyu were also tortured, mutilated and murdered by Mau Mau on many other occasions. The best known European victim was Michael Ruck, aged six, who was hacked to death with pangas along with his parents, Roger and Esme, and one of the Rucks' farm workers, Muthura Nagahu, who had tried to help the family.
In , the poisonous latex of the African milk bush was used by members of Mau Mau to kill cattle in an incident of biological warfare. Although Mau Mau was effectively crushed by the end of , it was not until the First Lancaster House Conference , in January , that native Kenyan majority rule was established and the period of colonial transition to independence initiated.
There is continuing debate about Mau Mau's and the rebellion's effects on decolonisation and on Kenya after independence.
Regarding decolonisation, the most common view is that Kenya's independence came about as a result of the British government's deciding that a continuance of colonial rule would entail a greater use of force than that which the British public would tolerate.
It has been argued that the conflict helped set the stage for Kenyan independence in December ,  or at least secured the prospect of Black-majority rule once the British left.
On the 12th of December , President Kenyatta issued an amnesty to Mau Mau fighters to surrender to the government. Some Mau Mau members insisted that they should get land and be absorbed into the civil service and Kenya army.
These leaders and several Mau Mau fighters were killed. On the 14th of January , the Minister for Defence Dr Njoroge Mungai was quoted in the Daily Nation saying: "They are now outlaws, who will be pursued and brought to punishment.
They must be outlawed as well in the minds of all the people of Kenya. On 12 September , the British government unveiled a Mau Mau memorial statue in Nairobi's Uhuru Park that it had funded "as a symbol of reconciliation between the British government, the Mau Mau, and all those who suffered".
This followed a June decision by Britain to compensate more than 5, Kenyans it tortured and abused during the Mau Mau insurgency.
Once the ban was removed, former Mau Mau members who had been castrated or otherwise tortured were supported by the Kenya Human Rights Commission, in particular by the commission's George Morara, in their attempt to take on the British government;   their lawyers had amassed 6, depositions regarding human rights abuses by late Ben Macintyre of The Times said of the legal case: "Opponents of these proceedings have pointed out, rightly, that the Mau Mau was a brutal terrorist force, guilty of the most dreadful atrocities.
Yet only one of the claimants is of that stamp—Mr Nzili. He has admitted taking the Mau Mau oath and said that all he did was to ferry food to the fighters in the forest.
None has been accused, let alone convicted, of any crime. Upon publication of Caroline Elkins' Imperial Reckoning in , Kenya called for an apology from the UK for atrocities committed during the s.
In July , "George Morara strode down the corridor and into a crowded little room [in Nairobi] where 30 elderly Kenyans sat hunched together around a table clutching cups of hot tea and sharing plates of biscuits.
It may well be thought strange, or perhaps even dishonourable, that a legal system which will not in any circumstances admit into its proceedings evidence obtained by torture should yet refuse to entertain a claim against the Government in its own jurisdiction for that Government's allegedly negligent failure to prevent torture which it had the means to prevent.
Furthermore, resort to technicality. Though the arguments against reopening very old wounds are seductive, they fail morally.
There are living claimants and it most certainly was not their fault that the documentary evidence that seems to support their claims was for so long 'lost' in the governmental filing system.
During the course of the Mau Mau legal battle in London, a large amount of what was stated to be formerly lost Foreign Office archival material was finally brought to light, while yet more was discovered to be missing.
Regarding the Mau Mau Uprising, the records included confirmation of "the extent of the violence inflicted on suspected Mau Mau rebels"  in British detention camps documented in Caroline Elkins' study.
Commenting on the papers, David Anderson stated that the "documents were hidden away to protect the guilty",  and "that the extent of abuse now being revealed is truly disturbing".
Allegations about beatings and violence were widespread. Basically you could get away with murder. It was systematic", Anderson said.
Bennett said that "the British Army retained ultimate operational control over all security forces throughout the Emergency", and that its military intelligence operation worked "hand in glove" with the Kenyan Special Branch "including in screening and interrogations in centres and detention camps".
The Kenyan government sent a letter to Hague insisting that the UK government was legally liable for the atrocities.
It is time that the mockery of justice that was perpetrated in this country at that time, should be, must be righted.
I feel ashamed to have come from a Britain that did what it did here [in Kenya]. Thirteen boxes of "top secret" Kenya files are still missing.
On 6 June , the foreign secretary, William Hague, told parliament that the UK government had reached a settlement with the claimants.
The Government will also support the construction of a memorial in Nairobi to the victims of torture and ill-treatment during the colonial era.
It is often argued that Mau Mau was suppressed as a subject for public discussion in Kenya during the periods under Kenyatta and Daniel arap Moi because of the key positions and influential presence of some loyalists in government, business and other elite sectors of Kenyan society post Members of Mau Mau are currently recognised by the Kenyan Government as freedom-independence heroes and heroines who sacrificed their lives in order to free Kenyans from colonial rule.
This official celebration of Mau Mau is in marked contrast to a post-colonial norm of Kenyan governments rejection of the Mau Mau as a symbol of national liberation.
It was also the name of another militant group that sprang up briefly in the spring of ; the group was broken up during a brief operation from 26 March to 30 April.
Contract labourers are those who sign a contract of service before a magistrate, for periods varying from three to twelve months.
Casual labourers leave their reserves to engage themselves to European employers for any period from one day upwards.
The phenomenon of squatters arose in response to the complementary difficulties of Europeans in finding labourers and of Africans in gaining access to arable and grazing land.
The alleged member or sympathiser of Mau Mau would be interrogated in order to obtain an admission of guilt—specifically, a confession that they had taken the Mau Mau oath—as well as for intelligence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kenyan insurgency, — This article is about the conflict in Kenya. For other uses, see Mau Mau disambiguation.
Mau Mau Uprising. Part of a series on the. Timeline of Kenya List of years in Kenya. African iron age. Swahili city states. Portuguese and Omani period.
British Colonial Period. Early post Independence. Moi Era. Recent history. The principal item in the natural resources of Kenya is the land, and in this term we include the colony's mineral resources.
It seems to us that our major objective must clearly be the preservation and the wise use of this most important asset. You may travel through the length and breadth of Kitui Reserve and you will fail to find in it any enterprise, building, or structure of any sort which Government has provided at the cost of more than a few sovereigns for the direct benefit of the natives.
The place was little better than a wilderness when I first knew it 25 years ago, and it remains a wilderness to-day as far as our efforts are concerned.
If we left that district to-morrow the only permanent evidence of our occupation would be the buildings we have erected for the use of our tax-collecting staff.
The greater part of the wealth of the country is at present in our hands. This land we have made is our land by right—by right of achievement.
It is often assumed that in a conflict there are two sides in opposition to one another, and that a person who is not actively committed to one side must be supporting the other.
During the course of a conflict, leaders on both sides will use this argument to gain active support from the "crowd". In reality, conflicts involving more than two persons usually have more than two sides, and if a resistance movement is to be successful, propaganda and politicization are essential.
Between and , when the fighting was at its worst, the Kikuyu districts of Kenya became a police state in the very fullest sense of that term.
Our sources have produced nothing to indicate that Kenyatta, or his associates in the UK, are directly involved in Mau Mau activities, or that Kenyatta is essential to Mau Mau as a leader, or that he is in a position to direct its activities.
Main article: Swynnerton Plan. It would be difficult to argue that the colonial government envisioned its own version of a gulag when the Emergency first started.
Colonial officials in Kenya and Britain all believed that Mau Mau would be over in less than three months. One courageous judge in Nairobi explicitly drew the parallel: Kenya's Belsen, he called one camp.
In a half-circle against the reed walls of the enclosure stand eight young, African women. There's neither hate nor apprehension in their gaze.
It's like a talk in the headmistress's study; a headmistress who is firm but kindly. The number of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis which is being disclosed in Prison and Detention Camps is causing some embarrassment.
Short rations, overwork, brutality, humiliating and disgusting treatment and flogging—all in violation of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
At the end of , the Administration were faced with the serious problem of the concealment of terrorists and supply of food to them.
This was widespread and, owing to the scattered nature of the homesteads, fear of detection was negligible; so, in the first instance, the inhabitants of those areas were made to build and live in concentrated villages.
This first step had to be taken speedily, somewhat to the detriment of usual health measures and was definitely a punitive short-term measure.
Whilst they [the Kikuyu] could not be expected to take kindly at first to a departure from their traditional way of life, such as living in villages, they need and desire to be told just what to do.
From the health point of view, I regard villagisation as being exceedingly dangerous and we are already starting to reap the benefits.
We knew the slow method of torture [at the Mau Mau Investigation Center] was worse than anything we could do. Special Branch there had a way of slowly electrocuting a Kuke—they'd rough up one for days.
Once I went personally to drop off one gang member who needed special treatment. I stayed for a few hours to help the boys out, softening him up.
Things got a little out of hand. By the time I cut his balls off, he had no ears, and his eyeball, the right one, I think, was hanging out of its socket.
Too bad, he died before we got much out of him. See also: British war crimes. Bottles often broken , gun barrels, knives, snakes, vermin, and hot eggs were thrust up men's rectums and women's vaginas.
The screening teams whipped, shot, burned and mutilated Mau Mau suspects, ostensibly to gather intelligence for military operations and as court evidence.
Mau Mau fighters,. The horrors they practiced included the following: decapitation and general mutilation of civilians, torture before murder, bodies bound up in sacks and dropped in wells, burning the victims alive, gouging out of eyes, splitting open the stomachs of pregnant women.
No war can justify such gruesome actions. In man's inhumanity to man, there is no race distinction. The Africans were practicing it on themselves.
There was no reason and no restraint on both sides. Main article: Lari massacre. If we are going to sin, we must sin quietly. Main article: Foreign and Commonwealth Office migrated archives.
Main criticism we shall have to meet is that 'Cowan plan'  which was approved by Government contained instructions which in effect authorised unlawful use of violence against detainees.
Partisan questions about the Mau Mau war have. How historically necessary was Mau Mau? Did its secretive violence alone have the power to destroy white supremacy?
Did Mau Mau aim at freedom for all Kenyans? Has the self-sacrificial victory of the poor been unjustly forgotten, and appropriated by the rich?
We are determined to have independence in peace, and we shall not allow hooligans to rule Kenya. We must have no hatred towards one another.
Mau Mau was a disease which had been eradicated, and must never be remembered again. Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 12 February BBC News.
Retrieved 23 July Unbowed: a memoir. Alfred A. The investigations of the Kenya Land Commission of — are a case study in such lack of foresight, for the findings and recommendations of this commission, particularly those regarding the claims of the Kikuyu of Kiambu, would serve to exacerbate other grievances and nurture the seeds of a growing African nationalism in Kenya".
Retrieved 11 April Francis Hall, an officer in the Imperial British East Africa Company and after whom Fort Hall was named, asserted: "There is only one way to improve the Wakikuyu [and] that is wipe them out; I should be only too delighted to do so, but we have to depend on them for food supplies.
More than 20, other Kikuyu were put into detention camps, where intensive efforts were made to convert them to the political views of the government—i.
Despite these government actions, Kikuyu resistance spearheaded the Kenya independence movement, and Jomo Kenyatta , who had been jailed as a Mau Mau leader in , became prime minister of an independent Kenya 10 years later.
In the ban on the Mau Mau was lifted by the Kenyan government. Mau Mau Article Additional Info. Print Cite. It uses two 52 card decks with all four suits, cards in total.
Mau Mau is an easy game without any major tactics that are essential for winning. The aim is to be the first to get rid of the cards in your hand.
Like most other card games Mau Mau starts with…. One of the players is the dealer. Every player, including the dealer, gets an appropriate amount of seven cards.
A couple of cards, those that remain from dealing, form the stock, which are placed face down.I'm a black gamedev and pixel artist from Brazil. I took part on 2 game jams and am working on a game about a cat endlessly running trough roofs. George Maumau career stats. Bold denotes league leader. Rushing Rush. Rushing. Rushing; Rushing Statistics Rushing; Year Team Lg G GS Att Gain Loss Yds Avg YPG Lg TD. Mau Maus was the name of a s street gang in New York gpjthomas.com book and the adapted film The Cross and the Switchblade and biography Run Baby Run document the life of its most famous leader Nicky Cruz. Mau Mau, militant African nationalist movement that originated in the s among the Kikuyu people of Kenya. The Mau Mau (origin of the name is uncertain) advocated violent resistance to British domination in Kenya; the movement was especially associated with the ritual oaths employed by leaders. The winner, who has no cards left in his or her hands, gets a negative number for the score, by default. When the scores are calculated, and the victory was a "Mau Mau" victory (with one or more Jacks), the score is multiplied by the number of Jacks plus one. For example, if it was a single.